What is a Skin Allergy?

Most of us encounter something scaly and bumpy, considering it dangerous, which in a short time molds into a scaly and red burning skin, triggering some allergy called rash. This is where our immune system starts acting that might be called overreacting by releasing specific antibodies to fight off the outside invaders, triggering the symptoms like swelling, rash, blisters, and redness. 

At times, this rash or allergy might also appear from using different lotion, soaps, or face wash or even due to wearing a ring. This is probably because when our skin comes in contact with chemicals like nickel or other compounds found in soaps. Particles in the air such as pollen can also trigger dermatitis when they land on the skin. Your doctor may call this “airborne contact dermatitis. Sometimes the reaction might also appear due to sudden exposure to the sun, also known as photoallergic contact dermatitis due to chemicals present in sunscreens, shaving lotions, and perfumes. Usually, the rashes or skin allergies don’t get right away but may take up to a few hours to 10 days. Typically, 12 hours to 3 days are taken for their abrupt appearance, even with treatment, symptoms might last 2 to 4 weeks. 

What’s inside? 

We’ll be narrowing down to:

Ø Defining skin allergies

Ø The causes of skin allergies

Ø Types of skin allergies

Ø Rosacea

Ø Ringworm

Ø contact dermatitis

Ø Hand, foot, and mouth disease

Ø Diaper rash 

Ø Psoriasis

Ø Chickenpox

Ø Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

Ø Cellulitis

Ø Drug allergies

Ø Scabies

Ø Measles

Ø When to see your medical management when you experience any rash?

 

What Causes Skin Allergy?

Skin allergies sometimes appear to be very tricky as there are more than 3,700 potential allergens caused by many things like perfumes, exposure to sunlight, soaps, or face wash or more often touching the poisonous plants. 

A few of the usual suspects include:

Nickel.

Pic Credit: Live Beauty health

 Nickel is one of the most common causes of skin allergy, like contact dermatitis, and this metal is usually found in jewelry, zippers, and bra hooks. 

Odor or Fragrances.

Odour or Fragrances
Pic Credit: alpha coders

The fragrance is one of the usual suspects of causing rapid skin allergy as it is found in many of the perfumes, lotions, soaps and face washes, and the other products that smell good and come under the top triggers. 

Ingredients found in household products.

Ingredients found in household products
Pic Credit: thought Co

 The skin may also react with metals and common preservatives found in the things around the home like sunscreens, cleaners, cosmetics, hair dyes, and many of the antibiotic creams. These creams contain bacitracin and neomycin, which are found in many over-the-counter options.

Latex- a rubber plant.

Latex- a rubber plant.
Pic Credit: Pinterest

Latex is a rubber plant that is found in many by of the household products such as plastic or disposable gloves, balloons, and baby bottles which also is the foremost cause of skin allergies. 

Poison ivy, oak, or sumac.

poison_ivy_oak_and_sumac
Pic Credit:

 A type of oil in these plants called urushiol causes allergic reactions.

Medications. 

Drug allergy
Pic Credit: Wom.net

Taking certain medicines may also cause rashes, which result from a sudden and abrupt allergic reaction, any side effects of drugs, and, most often, the photosensitivity to medication. 

Fungal infections. 

Some of the fungal infections caused by Ringworms with a distinctive ring-shaped rash, which may occur most commonly on the body or scalp. It also causes athlete’s foot and jock itch. 

Bacterial Infections. Some of the bacterial infections also appear to be the primary cause of skin allergies or rashes. They usually appear to be red and swollen in particular and tend to be painful if touched. If left untreated, the infection causing the cellulitis can spread and become life-threatening.

Rosacea

         

Rosacea
Pic Credit:

        

Rosacea comes under the category if chronic skin disease, which goes specific cycles of fading and relapse, which might be triggered at its rapid by spicy foods, drinking alcohol, beverages, exposure to sunlight, stress, or the intestinal bacteria Helicobacter pylori.

Signs and symptoms

 Its subtypes also cause a wide variety of diseases and depict symptoms like 

  • facial flushing, 
  • raised, red bumps, 
  • facial redness,
  • skin dryness, 
  • skin sensitivity

Risk Factors

Common risk factors for rosacea include:

· Gender. Women develop rosacea somewhat more frequently than men, although men are more prone to developing severe rosacea.

· Age

· Family History

· Fair Skin

· Sun Exposure

· History of Acne

· Ethnic Background

Ringworm

 

Ringworms infection
Pic Credit: Hair Holistic Scaled

Ringworm, tinea corporis, is a rash of body, generally caused due to fungal infection with a red and itchy circular rash on surroundings, with clearer skin in the middle. Ringworm gets its name because of its appearance. No worm is involved.

Ringworm is related to Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis), jock itch (tinea cruris) and ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis). It spreads by direct contact with skin, carried from an infected person or any animal.

Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms of ringworm may include:

  • Overlapping-circular shaped scaly rings which are usually slightly raised at borders
  • A rough ring-shaped area typically on the arms, trunk, and legs
  • A clear or rough area inside the field of infection, perhaps with the scattering red bumps

Risk factors

You’re at higher risk of ringworm of the body if you:

· Live in a warm climate

· Have close contact with an infected person or animal

· Share clothing, bedding or towels with someone who has a fungal infection

· Participate in sports that feature skin-to-skin contact, such as wrestling

· Wear tight or restrictive clothing

· Have a weak immune system

Contact dermatitis

Contact Dermatitis
Pic Credit:

On using a new skincare product or any detergent, our skin sometimes becomes red and irritated. This is the point where you might have experienced a severe sort of rash known as contact dermatitis. The condition occurs when chemicals you come in contact with cause some allergic skin reaction, which typically isn’t severe, but that might turn into an unpleasant situation until the itching goes away. 

Contact dermatitis involves the immune system where a body, if it comes in contact with something, it mistakenly assumes as if the body is under an attack and springs into action, making antibodies to fight that invader. At that moment, a chain of events causes a release of chemicals, including Histamine, which ultimately causes an allergic reaction or itchy rash. 

Signs and symptoms

The symptoms start appearing within some hours and might take some days after coming in contact with an allergen. Signs and symptoms of ringworm may include:

  • Itchy skin with red and scaly blisters
  • Blisters sometimes weep, ooze or become crusty
  • The borders are visible and start appearing when it is touched 
  • Due to extreme dryness, the skin feels tightened or stiff
  • Open sores that form clusters

Risk Factors

You’re at higher risk of developing contact dermatitis if you:

  • Live in the areas where poison oak, ivy, and sumac grow
  • come in contact with common irritants and allergies frequently
  • do not wear protecting clothing or gloves on handling any cleaning product or pother chemicals
  • come in connection with the fragrance of soap or lotion 

Hand, foot, and mouth disease

  

Hand, foot, and mouth disease, a contagious viral infection that usually affects children under the age of 5, is characterized by sores in the mouth and a rash on the hands and feet with painful red blisters in the mouth as well as on the tongue and gums. Coxsackievirus most commonly causes Hand-foot-and-mouth disease.

Raised red spotting is located on the hands and palms and also on the soles of feet. It may also appear on the buttocks and the genital areas. Frequent hand-washing and avoiding close contact with people infected with hand-foot-and-mouth disease may help reduce your child’s risk of infection.

Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms of Hand-foot-and-mouth disease may include:

· Fever

· Sore throat

· Feeling of being unwell (malaise)

· Painful, red, blister-like lesions on the tongue, gums, and inside of the cheeks

· A red rash, without itching but sometimes with blistering, on the palms, soles and sometimes the buttocks

· Irritability in infants and toddlers

· Loss of appetite

 

Risk Factors

Your children are at higher risk of developing hand-foot and mouth disease if they:

  • come in direct contact with the one who has already developed it, since the infection is spread by person-to-person contact.
  • are dehydrated as taking fluid sips during illness is necessary

Diaper rash

 

Diaper
Pic Credit: suavinex

Diaper rash is a common form of rash which occurs at the skin where babies are in direct contact with the diaper. It is a common form of inflamed skin that appears as a patch, wet and irritated, in the way of bright red skin, which seems warm to touch. 

It most often results due to unchanged diapers, skin sensitivity, or chafing that affects babies, annoys them, and irritates them. Anyone who wears a diaper regularly may develop this condition. But it usually clears up with simple at-home treatments, such as air drying, more frequent diaper changes, and ointment. Sometimes the baby’s skin might react to his wipes, any new disposable diapers, or any detergent or bleach used to launder cloth diapers. Other substances that might be an enhancement to the problem include baby lotions, powders, and oils.

Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms of diaper rash may include:

  • Baby cry- as the baby, on getting rash, seems more uncomfortable than usual, exclusively when the diaper is changed.
  • Often, the baby cries when the diaper is broken, or the area is washed. 
  • Diaper rash is marked by red, tender-looking skin in the diaper region like buttocks, thighs, and genitals.

Risk Factors

Your children are at higher risk of developing hand-foot and mouth disease if they:

  • Get irritated from stool or urine
  • Have a bacterial or fungal infection
  • Have sensitive skin
  • Use a lot of antibiotics
  • Experience shafing or rubbing
  • Have prolonged exposure to urine and stool which may irritate a baby’s delicate skin

Psoriasis

 

psoriasis
Pic Credit: stassi-schroeder

Psoriasis, a skin disease that generally causes skin cells to multiply rapidly, up to 10 times faster than normal, which makes the body build up bumpy patches of red covered with white scales. They can grow everywhere but mostly appear on scalp, elbows, and knees and lower back. It is contagious as it passes from person to person and also inherited too as it happens in the members of the same family. 

Psoriasis usually appears in early childhood and affects just a few areas, but it might cover more significant body parts in severe cases. The patches have the ability to heal but try to visit throughout person’s life. 

Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms of diaper rash may include:

  • Disordered fingernails and toenails which also includes discoloration and pitting of nails
  • The nails also detach and crumble from the nail bed
  • Plaque appears on nail crust and on the scalp which is itchy and painful
  • In some instances, the plaque grows and merges deeply, covering larger areas. They are often covered with silver-colored scales 

· Small scaling spots (commonly seen in children)

· Dry, cracked skin that may bleed or itch

· Itching, burning or soreness

· Thickened, pitted or ridged nails

· Swollen and stiff joints

Risk Factors

You are at higher risk of developing Psoriasis if:

  • You are under stress as it may have a direct impact on your immunity and immune system and ultimately increase the risk of Psoriasis. 
  • It runs in the family. Having one parent with psoriasis increases your risk of getting the disease, and having two parents with psoriasis increases your risk even more.
  • You smoke as tobacco smoking not only increases the risk of developing psoriasis but may also increase the severity of the disease. Smoking may also play a role in the initial development of the disease.
  • You have infections of throat and skin, or even the skin is cut or scraped.

Chickenpox

 

Chickenpox
Pic Credit:

Chickenpox, a contagious infection that mainly affects children, but adults get effected too, is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. The rash is often accompanied by super-itchy red-blisters which, over several days, start popping up and leaking, forming a crust over it, before its final healing. 

The fluid blisters appear all over the body within no time, and the rash is accompanied by fever, sore throat, body aches, and loss of appetite. This is a contagious disease, and all the blisters are crusted over with a thick covering of crust. Children are most likely to get affected, exclusively those who are under the age of 2. 90% of the cases are with young children, but at times, the elders get affected too, those who live with children, who work in a school or childcare facility, who haven’t been vaccinated and were not exposed to the virus before. 

Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms of diaper rash may include:

  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Headache
  • Tiredness and a general feeling of being unwell (malaise)
  • Once the chickenpox rash appears, it goes through three phases:
  • Raised pink or red bumps (papules), which break out over several days
  • Small fluid-filled blisters (vesicles), which form in about one day and then break and leak
  • Crusts and scabs, which cover the broken blisters and take several more days to heal

Risk Factors

You are at higher risk of developing Psoriasis if:

  • You live with children
  • You have a weak immune system due to any disease like cancer, HIV, or other.
  • You have been vaccinated and still get chickenpox, symptoms are often milder, with fewer blisters and mild or no fever. A few people can get chickenpox more than once, but this is rare.

The systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

  butterfly-shaped lopus

The systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an auto-immune disease that affects the organs and body systems. It is also a chronic disease that displays phases of worsening symptoms, alternating with periods of mild symptoms. 

People with SLE often refer it to lupus or a type of lupus classified as a classic butterfly-shaped face rash that goes from cheek to cheek, reaching over the nose and sometimes getting worse with sun exposure. This might be due to hormonal, environmental, or genetic factors and is more common in women than men. 

Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may include:

  • Ulcer in the mucous membrane, which might lead towards mouth and nose
  • Arthritis of hands, feet, knees, and wrists
  • Hair loss and thinning
  • Irregular heartbeats which are the sign of cardiac lung involvement

Risk Factors

You are at higher risk of developing SLE if:

  • You are a woman. Women are more susceptible to getting SLE.
  • You are aged as Lupus affects people of all ages but most often between the ages of 15 to 45.
  • You are an Afro-American or Asian-American or belong to Hispania as these races are more prone to getting Lupus.

Cellulitis

Facts and Risk Factors of Cellulitis
Pic Credit: ActiveBeat

 

Cellulitis, a common but serious bacterial infection in which the infected skin appears to be swollen and red, typically painful and warm to touch. Areas that usually are under effect include the skin of lower legs. Still, it may also occur in the face, arms, and the other regions occurring most often when a crack or a break in your skin allows all the bacteria to enter.

If left untreated, the infection can spread to your lymph nodes and bloodstream and rapidly become life-threatening. It isn’t usually spread from person to person. This is sometimes also considered as a medical emergency where urgent care is required. 

Signs and symptoms

  • Red, painful skin 
  • Skin becomes hot to touch as with or without oozing; it spreads quickly
  • Fever
  • Red streaking might be seen from the rash, which clearly appears to be the sign of serious infection and requires medical attention.

Risk factors

Several factors put you at increased risk of cellulitis:

· Any cut, fracture, injury, burn, or scrape gives bacteria an entry point.

· Conditions that weaken your immune systems — such as diabetes, leukemia, and HIV/AIDS — leave you more susceptible to infections. Certain medications also can weaken your immune system.

· Skin conditions such as eczema, athlete’s foot, and shingles can cause breaks in the skin, which give bacteria an entry point.

· Having had cellulitis before or even in history makes you prone to develop it again.

· Being overweight or obese increases your risk of developing cellulitis.

Drug allergy

Drug allergy
Pic Credit: Wom.net

Drug allergy, an allergic reaction in which the immune system fights against infections and diseases, bringing forth the symptoms like fever, rash, and double breathing. Drug allergy usually is not common as a drug allergy generally causes less than 5 to 10 percent of the negative drug reactions. Drugs are often taken as outside invaders mistakenly by our immune system, which is a response, consider it as a threat and starts making antibodies against it. These special proteins attack the invader, hence, attacking the drug as they are already programmed. 

Signs and symptoms

In response, increased inflammation may arouse the symptoms like 

  • The mild, itchy red rash which might take from days to weeks to occur after taking a drug
  • high fever
  • Trouble in breathing or double breathing or racing heart
  • hives
  • swelling
  • itching and difficulty breathing
  • stomach upset
  • tiny purple or red dots on the skin

Risk Factors

Several factors put you at increased risk of drug allergy:

  • Age as a drug allergy seems to be more apparent and common in young and middle-aged adults
  • are a female as it affects females more than males
  • are genetically polymorphic
  • have certain viral infections (HIV and herpes viruses) 
  • have drug-related factors 

Scabies

 

Skin-Scabies
Pic Credit:

Scabies, a contagious rash accompanied by an itchy skin condition caused by a tiny burrowing mite called Sarcoptes scabiei, creates an intense itching with an ultimate urge to scratch it, especially at night. 

Scabies spreads quickly through close physical contacts, hence. The doctors recommend the treatment for an entire family or contact groups. If medications are applied at the right time, they kill the mites that cause scabies and eggs. But you may still have some itching for several weeks after treatment. The tracks and tunnels effect mostly the folds of skin like between the fingers, in the armpits, around the waist, along the insides of the wrists, on the inner elbows, on the soles of the feet, around the breasts, around the male genital area, on the buttocks, on the knees and on the soles of feet. 

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms may take four to six weeks to appear; some of the symptoms include:

  • the extremely itchy rash may be pimply, made up of tiny blisters, or scaly
  • raised, white, or flesh-toned lines

Risk Factors

Several factors put you at increased risk of scabies:

· Presence of many children in the household.

· Low family income.

· Poor housing.

· Sharing clothes and towels.

· Irregular use of showers.

Measles

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a serious fatal infection caused by a virus and kills thousands of people worldwide. Most often, measles is not prevented by a vaccine, but the results of vaccination rates are higher in general.

The infection takes two to three weeks to spread and goes through the period of incubation on the initial basis, therefore providing o signs and symptoms for appearance. With the rapid pace, it starts appearing accompanied by a high fever, persistent cough, runny nose, inflamed eyes, and the sore throat, which lasts for two to three days. The rash appears depicting red spots, some of which are raised slightly from their average size, causing bumps in clusters, giving skin a splotchy red appearance. The face is affected first, followed by the rash in the arms, thighs, and leading towards leg and feet. Within that time, the fever rises sharply up to its maximum of 104 to 105.8 F (40 to 41 C). The measles rash gradually recedes, fading first from the face and last from the thighs and feet.

The rash is contagious and may take almost eight days, starting four days before the rash appears and ending when the outbreak has been present for four days.

Signs and symptoms

  • increased inflammation may arouse the symptoms like
  • Fever
  • sore throat
  • red, watery eyes
  • loss of appetite
  • cough
  • runny nose
  • red rash spreading from the face down the body in three to five days after first symptoms appear
  • tiny red spots with blue-white centers appear inside the mouth

Risk Factors

Risk factors for measles include:

  • Being unvaccinated. If you haven’t received the vaccine for measles, you’re much more likely to develop it.
  • Traveling internationally. If you travel to developing countries where measles is more common, you’re at higher risk of catching the disease.
  • Having a vitamin A deficiency. If you don’t have enough vitamin A in your diet, you’re more likely to have more severe symptoms and complications.

When to see your medical management when you experience any rash?

You must contact your medical management if the rash doesn’t go away from the applied home treatments. On experiencing other symptoms and suspecting this illness, you should contact them. Going to the hospital immediately if you experience a rash and any of the following symptoms would prove beneficial. 

  • increasing pain or discoloration in the rash area
  • tightness or itchiness in the throat
  • difficulty breathing
  • swelling of the face or extremities
  • fever of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher
  • confusion
  • dizziness
  • severe head or neck pain
  • repeated vomiting or diarrhea

What you can do now

Follow the following tips if you have a rash:

  • For soothing mild contact diseases, using home remedies would be best

· Identify potential triggers for the rash and avoid them as much as possible

· Call your medical management if the outbreak doesn’t go away with home treatments.

· You should also contact them if you’re experiencing other symptoms in addition to your rash and suspect you have an illness.

· Carefully follow any treatments your doctor prescribes.

· Speak with your medical management if your rash persists or gets worse despite treatment.





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